Wrong Tariff
How Moscow lawyers ravaged the Chuvash utilities
The company "Kommunalnye tehnologii" took second place in the Chuvash ranking of "State Order Kings". More than ten years money which people paid for light, heat and hot water was going through it. Some of this money went somewhere else — to the companies that are associated with the owners of "Kommunalnye tehnologii''.
On October 19, 2018, the guards of the office of the company "Kommunalnye tehnologii" (KT) barricaded the entrance to prevent the inspectors who came to disconnect the building from the heat for debts. The company, which supplied the largest cities of Chuvashia with heat and electricity for more than ten years, did not have 432 thousand rubles to pay for heating its office. The total debt of KT — about 3.5 billion rubles. Creditors started its way into bankruptcy.
"It was alarming that the founders of this company were from Moscow".
In the mid-2000s, the authorities of Chuvashia leased the thermal and electrical networks of Cheboksary, Novocheboksarsk and two other cities to a specially created operator — KT. The idea seemed successful: the systems and boilers will have an owner, which will bring them back to life and update, if necessary, but still will pay the state rent every year (not to mention that will repay old debts to suppliers of light and heat — about 120 million rubles.). The consumer had to pay for it first: citizens and organizations transfer money for electricity, hot water, and heating to KT; the company pays it to suppliers of gas, heat, and power, and takes the difference — it's her expenses and a small profit.
The company could allow itself to rent an office in the middle of the city with a beautiful view of the Volga river. In 2013, however, the company got short on money and had to find less expensive premises. Photo by Alexey Radchenko
Until 2012, everything was going well. According to the company reports debts of KT to suppliers (payables) and consumer debts (receivables) grew at a comparable pace. The existence of such arrears is normal for the intermediary: consumers always delay payments to him, and he, in return, — to suppliers. It is also true that at the same time bank indebtedness was increasing, but, theoretically, there is nothing unusual in that as well — periodically, to close the cash deficiency, the intermediary has to snatch money from the bank, not to mention that boilers and their networks require funds to be maintained. However, things went downhill after that: in 2012 KT's bank debt exceeded accounts receivable value, and in 2013 the account payables outstripped the receivables and further widened the gap between them.
At the end of 2017 (the last available reporting), the situation was as follows: KT owes suppliers and banks 3.2 billion rubles, and customers owe to KT five times less — 625 million rubles (about half of the accounts receivable, obviously, was written off in 2015).
Which invokes thoughts of a bankruptcy. No wonder that things got even worse with networks maintenance.

So, where did the money go? This question was discussed by the Republican heads quite a few times during the last few years — both in Gossoviet and in governor's office. KT was referencing to the fact that the consumers (mainly management companies) pay poorly and State sets the tariff too low, which doesn't cover all of its expenses. Tariff service objected that many KT expenses were not justified and that Chuvashian tariff is not lower than any other region's. This conflict was brought to courts more than once.
Now the office of "Kommunalnie Technologii" resides practically in the industrial estate. Photo by Pavel Alexeev.
KT's problems began to arise just after the change of the Republican head — when Nikolay Fyodorov was replaced by Mikhail Ignatiev in 2010, says KT's old opponent — deputy of Chuvashian Gossoviet Igor Molyakov. "Suspicious was the fact that founders of that company [KT] — are from Moscow, with an authorized capital of 10 thousand rubles, — says deputy. — Only the electricity networks are estimated at 2.5 billion rubles. With heating systems, the value of their properties estimates at more than 4 billion rubles. And to give it all away to a company which was mostly formed by "Klishin i partnery" law firm representatives... According to my sources, this firm was closely associated with the former president of the Chuvashian republic Nikolay Fyodorov".
Where did the money go?
Nikolay Fyodorov was the head of Chuvashia for the period from 1994 up to 2010. Until that he was a Russian justice minister and one of the Moscow's "Klishin i partnery" law firm founders. In Chuvashia, this firm's lawyers have gained quite a weight. For example, in years 2000–2002 the Republican Minister of Property Relations was the former firm's vice-chairman Georgiy Matyushkin.

One of the Fyodorov's projects was the creation in the year 2000 of the "Volzhskaya Investicionnaya Kompaniya (VIK)" — created for attracting funds to the republic. This company is closely associated with "Klishin i partnery": general director of VIK Alan Takhoev formerly worked at a law firm, while another general director and proprietor of VIK's main shareholder — "Neftinvest KV" — Igor Rozhkov was a former proprietor and general director of the OOO "Yuridicheskaya firma "Klishin i partnery"", his predecessor on the general director's post of "Neftinvest KV" Oleg Shnirev was a consultant in "Klishin i partnery" (hereinafter — information regarding companies from "SPARK-Interfax").

VIK was KT's primary owner up until 2014. It is still somewhere nearby: KT is owned by two companies, registered in the premises belonging to the "Klishin i partnery" ("Prominvest" — per. Kharitonyevskiy M, d. 9/13, str 5 and "Biznes-market" — ul. Myasnickaya, d. 24/7 str. 1 office 67; hereinafter information regarding real estate from Rosreestr), while Denis Pleshakov, who in this scheme is reckoned as a beneficiary of KT's 70%, was once a member of the VIK's board of directors. As of now, the VIK itself officially holds 1% of KT.
How "Kommunalnie Technologii" is tied with "Klishin i partnery"
All these details are essential if we want to understand where the money could have gone.

KT has repeatedly been at the center of scandals related to theft.

For example, in 2014, the former CEO of the company Viktor Luchinkin, who held this position in 2006–2010, was convicted. He was found guilty of embezzling 64 million roubles and have sentenced to 3,5 years of a colony. The court found that "Luchinkin without any need for the organization concluded with firms led by his friends, lease agreements for more than 50 vehicles, a contract of sale of transformer premises with equipment and rental agreements for a number of rented premises at pre-inflated prices."

Law enforcement agencies have similar claims to the last CEO of the company Dmitry Kryukov. He was suspected that in 2015–2016 "as a result of his illegal acts committed for the benefit of a legal firm, the services provided by OOO "Kommunalnye tehnologii" were paid twice," and because of which the KT suffered "economically unreasonable costs" of 24 million rubles.
"7x7" examined the largest procurement of KT for 2015–2018 and found that three dozen tenders for a total amount of 264 million rubles were won by companies associated with "Klishin i partnery" (see table).
In particular, "KT" has concluded 17 contracts for a total amount of 90 million rubles from a construction company "M5 center group" between 2015 and 2016, and contracts for 28.6 million rubles with the law firm "Stroygarant+" between 2016 and 2017. Both companies are associated with "Klishin i partnery".
KT was also giving out loans to friendly companies. For instance, in 2013 15 million rubles were received by "Konsolidaciya i nedvizhimost," which is controlled via different organization by "Klishin i partnery." Previously mentioned "Biznes-market" received 145 million rubles through several loans ( here's the biggest one), "Biznes-investprom" (example here), which was owned by Vladimir Vicherko, received 26 million rubles. Vicherko took part in different companies associated with "Klishin i partnery," in particular, he was a general director of companies who currently own VIK and member of "Promsyntez" board of directors.
Klishin, Fyodorov and parnters
VIK was famous not only for communal technologies. It was managing the state's holding of Novocheboksarsk's "Khimprom", which was eventually inherited by Viktor Vekselberg's "Renova." It also received a big block of shares from the Republican bank — "Chuvashkreditprombank" — and was able to turn it into a controlling block of shares (nominally the shares are distributed between VIK and its accommodation parties). Thus, the republic has lost its control over the bank. To expand shares VIK took the money from the bank itself. After Fyodorov departure new authorities tried to dispute these loan transactions, but without success: while court admitted the violations, the limitation period has already expired.
VIK took the money for the republican captive bank shares from the bank itself. Photo by Pavel Alexeev.
Another asset of VIK — a major shopping center "Kaskad" in Cheboksary. "Specfinpoekt-Kaskad" company is owned by VIK together with Cyprian Estial Holding, which has Valeriy Volkov listed as its director (which is also the name of another "Klishin i partnery" founder).
"Volzhskaya investicionnaya kompaniya" and Klishin's institutions have also received a land property in the middle of Cheboksary for building "Kaskad" shopping center. The mall was finished by using credit from "Rosselhozbank," where Nikolay Fedorov's son was working for some time. Photo by Pavel Alexeev.
There are more close ties between Fyodorov family and Klishin's board. Nikolay Fyodorov's son — Vasily, together with Valery Volkov and Alexey Klishin are all taking part in Samara explosive materials manufacturer "Promsyntez" board of directors. The latter is owned by "Vasial-invest" company, one of its proprietors being Fyodorov jr. and two others appearing in companies registered at the "Klishin i partnery" branch office addresses (general director of "Vasial-invest " is the same Valery Volkov).

Both Vasily Fyodorov and his sister Karina Fуodorova own houses in elite complex, which belongs to Vladimir Vicherko. The complex is located 12 kilometers away from Cheboksary, near the Syukterka village. Locals call the complex "Fyodorov's residence."

Its construction began around the early 2000s in reserved forest zone alongside the shores of Volga. A new, perfectly asphalted road leads to the complex, which includes several elite housings. The territory belongs to "Salamby" company, which was once owned by Novocheboksarian "Khimprom," but since 2007, when housings construction was completed, Vladimir Vicherko is its beneficial owner.

There are four houses in the western part of the complex. Two of them belong to Vasily Fyodorov. Another was owned by Chuvashian ex-head wife, Svetlana Fyodorova, who presented it to her daughter Karina in 2015. Next house belongs to Guliya Drinevoy, who directs "Aphrodyta" – elite beauty salon in Cheboksary, owned again by Vasily Fyodorov. |n the eastern part of the complex, three houses belong to Oleg Ermolaev, a businessman and a deputy of Cheboksary parliament. His brother, Vladimir Ermolaev, is claimed by media to be one of the richest men in Chuvashia.

"7x7" asked "KT" for a commentary, and since the beginning of March, the press service promised to answer. After receiving an additional question as to why KT was making deals with "its friendly" companies, they finally replied, "Our management has decided not to answer these questions".
"State Order Kings". Chuvashia
How the ranking was made

The initial sample frame of companies was done with "SPARK-Marketing" database and included all companies, which between January 1st, 2011 and October 28th, 2018 have made 94/44-F3 contracts in that region worth over 300 million rubles. Then, the government and municipal companies were removed from the list, as well as the companies which 94/44-F3 contracts made less than a half of the sum of their total contracts (94/44-F3 and 223-F3) in that region; the companies which were in fact just branches of the major regional companies were removed as well. The remaining companies had their owners identified with the help of both "Kontur. Fokus" and "SPARK-Interfax" databases. The companies with common owners were added to a common cluster and their contracts summed, after that the ranking was ordered by the owner. In the cases where the owner was unable to identify (which mostly took place in cases with ZAO), as an exception, a general director's name was written in the "Owner" field (all such cases are specified separately).
1st place
2nd place
3th place
4th place
5th place
6th place
7th place
8th place
9th place
10th place
Anatoly Fedorov
Amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
10.9 billion rubles

53-year-old Anatoly Fedorov is an entrepreneur, a deputy of the Assembly of Deputies of the Tsivilsky District of the fourth convening, the sole owner of the Voddorstroy road company. Born in the village of Churachiki, Tsivilsky district of Chuvashia. In the 80s he studied at the Cheboksary Construction Technical School, graduated from the Faculty of Transport Construction of the Moscow Road Technical School and the Russian-German Higher School of Economics in Moscow.

He began to work as a combine operator immediately after graduation. After the technical school he took the position of master, then became a foreman. Since 1998, he has been in business, all this time he was the head of the road company "Voddorstroy". He has many departmental awards, several times recognized as the best entrepreneur of Chuvashia. He is married and has two daughters.

4.7 million rubles of government contracts for the maintenance of roads also received through his other company, "Kapital", the main activity of which is plant growing.

The Voddorstroy company was registered in 1999 in the village of Churachiki. Engaged in the construction and repair of roads. The largest contract in Chuvashia — 261 million rubles — was received for the repair of roads in Cheboksary in 2018 from the city management of housing and communal services and improvement. The total amount of government contracts — 14.2 billion rubles. Revenue for 2017 — 1.8 billion rubles.
Denis Pleshakov, Pavel Chernov
Amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
3.4 billion rubles
Communal technologies
"Communal technologies" were formed in 2003, when Nikolay Fedorov was president of Chuvashia. The company united the enterprises of housing and communal services of four cities of Chuvashia: Cheboksary, Novocheboksarsk, Tsivilsk and Mariinsky Posad. Formally, the owners and beneficiaries of the company changed many times, but behind them was the Klishin and Partners advocate board, which was friendly to Nikolay Fedorov. Now the beneficiaries of the "Communal technologies" are Denis Pleshakov and Pavel Chernov, they own the company through the firms "Prominvest" and "Business Market"; both are registered in Moscow in the premises belonging to "Klishin and Partners".

The largest contract in Chuvashia — 651 million rubles — was concluded in 2016 with "T Plus" for the supply of heat. The total amount of state contracts is 5.9 billion rubles. Revenue for 2017 — 2.7 billion rubles.

Now the debt of CT is about 3.5 billion rubles. The courts are considering a bankruptcy case. The Mayor's Office of Cheboksary terminated the lease agreement for the heating networks. Next in line is the power grid.
Roman Subbotin, Roman Zotikov
Amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
2.9 billion rubles
AMK, Farmgroup
In 2018, the antimonopoly service of Chuvashia investigated price collusion between the AMK of Roman Zotikov and Roman Subbotin and the company "Insight". They used the same addresses, telephone numbers, e-mail and computers at the auction. Local media have suggested that the scandal "will not in the best way affect the reputation of the influential Zotikov family behind the violators." Subbotin and Zotikov together own three companies that sold medical goods and services worth 4 billion rubles on state records, — AMK, "Farmgroup" and "Medtekhnika". Each of them individually owns other companies.

Farmgroup was founded in 2009 and is engaged in the wholesale trade of pharmaceutical products. The founders are Roman Subbotin and Roman Zotikov — 50% each. The largest contract in Chuvashia is 15 million rubles — concluded with the regional Ministry of Health for the supply of anticancer drugs for the oncologic dispensary of Chuvashia. The total amount of state contracts is 2 billion rubles. The company's revenue in 2017 amounted to 188 million rubles.

AMK was established in 2010 and is engaged in the wholesale of products used for medical purposes. The founders — Subbotin, Zotikov, each owns 50% each. The total amount of state contracts is 1.8 billion rubles. The largest contract in Chuvashia is 32 million rubles — for the supply and installation of medical equipment for intensive care of newborns, concluded with the Republican Ministry of Health. The company's revenue in 2017 amounted to 271 million rubles.
Arthur Petrosyan
Amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
2.2 billion rubles
"Elitstroy" was founded in 2009. Its sole owner is Arthur Petrosyan, and a CEO is the former director of the Chuvash Road Administration of the Ministry of Transport of Chuvashia Valery Atrokhov. Petrosyan is called the king of state orders not only in Chuvashia, but also in the Ulyanovsk region, where his company closed the top 10 contractors in 2017. In 2017, the authorities of Chuvashia suspected "Elitstroy" in a scam. During the reconstruction of the embankment, the company made a change in the contract price, asking for the installation of lanterns an additional 6 million rubles. But the lights, as it turned out, were cheaper. The largest contract in Chuvashia — 314 million rubles — for the overhaul of roads in Cheboksary in 2017. The total amount of government contracts — 4 billion rubles. The company's revenue in 2017 amounted to 933 million rubles.
Sergey Lavrentiev
Amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
2 billion rubles
Sergey Lavrentiev is the only owner of the Alza developer. According to the businessman, he was interested in the construction since he was young. He graduated from the Chuvash Civil Engineering College, then the Faculty of Economics of Chechen State University. In 2002, he acquired "Alza", which specialized in working clothes. The company began building garages and worked on subcontracts with construction companies. In January 2019, Lavrentiev was placed under house arrest, suspected of complicity in embezzlement. He provided to the Ministry of Sports of Chuvashia fictitious documents on the purchase and supply of sports equipment and equipment for the biathlon center for 34 million rubles.

"Alza" has problems with several objects — the company did not pass the housing on schedule in Cheboksary along Tractor Builders Avenue and in Novocheboksarsk, as well as the Olympic Biathlon Training Center. The company owes 297 million ruble, according to the writs of execution, the court has a claim for its bankruptcy. The largest contract of "Alza" in Chuvashia — 731 million rubles on the construction of the school, concluded in 2015 with the Office of Architecture and Urban Planning Cheboksary. The total amount of state contracts is 2.5 billion rubles. In 2017, the company's revenue amounted to 70 million rubles.
Alexey Korotkov
Amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
2 billion rubles
Holding company "Golitsyn"
Alexey Korotkov's business interests are in the field of construction and agriculture — he is a co-owner of two dozen existing and already liquidated companies. Its largest enterprise is "Golitsyn". Nevertheless, media call entrepreneur unlucky contractor. In 2013, he built a new building for the Chuvash drug control, but when it was almost completed, the drug control was abolished, and its functions — along with the building — were transferred to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. And the regional Ministry of Internal Affairs began checking the cost of work. In 2016, Korotkov complained that "Golitsyn" was on the verge of bankruptcy because of the regional Ministry of Sport, which underpaid 487 million rubles for the construction of the ice palace "Cheboksary Arena". In the end, one and the other conflict was resolved in court.

HC "Golitsyn" was founded in 1997, engaged in the construction of buildings. The sole founder is Alexey Korotkov. The largest order in Chuvashia is 938 million rubles. on the construction of the ice palace in Cheboksary, concluded with the Ministry of Physical Culture and Sports of Chuvashia. The total amount of state contracts is 2.1 billion rubles. The company's revenue in 2017 amounted to 419 million rubles.
Marina Frolova, Andrey Frolov
Amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
2 billion rubles
"Ultrapharm-M" existed from 1997 to 2018. It was owned by Marina (share — 90.9%) and Andrey (9.1%) of the Frolovs. Marina Frolova also owned the Medtechgroup company. The first company traded in pharmaceutical products and entered into contracts for a total of 2 billion rubles, the second — with medical products, contracts for 364 million rubles.

In 2017, Marina Frolova was involved in the delivery of low-quality medical oxygen to 31 healthcare institutions of Chuvashia. A criminal case was brought against her, but then it was terminated for lack of corpus delicti.

The largest contract "Ultrapharm-M" in Chuvashia — 14 million rubles for the supply of anticancer drugs to the Ministry of Health of Chuvashia in 2017. The company's revenue in 2017 amounted to 175 million rubles.
Minhadydar Yusupov
Amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
1.8 billion rubles
Minhaydyar Yusupov has three construction companies, the largest of which is "Ramiss". The company specializes in the repair and maintenance of culverts (they are laid under the road so that water can flow from one side of the embankment to the other), as well as bridges, overpasses and other artificial road structures. The main customers are the regional offices of Rosavtodor.

The total amount of government contracts is 4 billion rubles. The largest contract in Chuvashia — 378 million rubles for overhaul of the federal highway section. Revenue in 2017 — 798 million rubles.
Eduard Rezyapov, Svetlana Sergeeva
The amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
1.8 billion rubles
"Soyuzstroyinvest" was registered in 2011 in Cheboksary. Engaged in the construction and repair of buildings. The company's founders — Svetlana Sergeeva, Eduard Rezyapov. They own 50% each.

The largest contract in Chuvashia is 565 million rubles on the construction of engineering infrastructure in the Kanasha park in 2018. The total amount of state contracts is 2.1 billion rubles. The company's revenue for 2017 — 219 million rubles.
Andrey Alexandrov, Oleg Avansky, Fyodor Andreev
Amount of government orders in Chuvashia:
1.6 billion rubles
Firm "Starko"
55-year-old Andrey Alexandrov was born in the village of Nyushkasy of the Chuvash ASSR. After the army he entered the Cheboksary Building Technicum, graduated with honors. He began his career in 1988 as a repairman at the Cheboksary Production Association named after V. I. Chapaev. Received a degree in industrial and civil construction at CSU. Since 1994, he has been the General Director of Firm "Starko" LLC. The three main owners of the company are Andrey Alexandrov, Oleg Avansky and Fyodor Andreev.

Firm "Starko" is engaged in the construction of buildings. The largest contract in Chuvashia — 781 million rubles on the construction of facilities for water purification, concluded in 2013 with the regional Ministry of Construction. The total amount of state contracts is 1.8 billion rubles. The company's revenue for 2017 amounted to 677 million rubles.
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